can u pls explain concept behind s,p,d,f orbitals...

Asked by Kaveri Ramesh | 16th Feb, 2014, 04:37: PM

Expert Answer:

Each shell is composed of one or more subshells, which are themselves composed of atomic orbitals. For example, the first (K) shell has one subshell, called 1s; the second (L) shell has two subshells, called 2s and 2p; the third shell has 3s, 3p, and 3d; the fourth shell has 4s, 4p, 4d and 4f; the fifth shell has 5s, 5p, 5d, and 5f and can theoretically hold more but the 5f subshell, although occupied in actinides, is not filled in any element occurring naturally. The various possible subshells are shown in the following table:

Subshell label

?

Max electrons

Shells containing it

Historical name

s

0

2

Every shell

 sharp

p

1

6

2nd shell and higher

 principal

d

2

10

3rd shell and higher

 diffuse

f

3

14

4th shell and higher

 fundamental

g

4

18

5th shell and higher (theoretically)

(next in alphabet after f)

 

Number of electrons in each shell

Each subshell is constrained to hold 4? + 2 electrons at most, namely:

  • Each s subshell holds at most 2 electrons
  • Each p subshell holds at most 6 electrons
  • Each d subshell holds at most 10 electrons
  • Each f subshell holds at most 14 electrons
  • Each g subshell holds at most 18 electrons

Therefore, the K shell, which contains only an s subshell, can hold up to 2 electrons; the L shell, which contains an s and a p, can hold up to 2 + 6 = 8 electrons, and so forth; that's why nth shell can hold up to 2n2 electrons.

 

Shell
name

Subshell
name

Subshell
max
electrons

Shell
max
electrons

K

1s

2

2

L

2s

2

2 + 6 = 8

2p

6

M

3s

2

2 + 6 + 10
18

3p

6

3d

10

N

4s

2

2 + 6 +
+ 10 + 14
32

4p

6

4d

10

4f

14

Answered by  | 17th Feb, 2014, 11:29: AM

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