acid base and salts notes

please someone provide me

Asked by bagdain | 16th Oct, 2018, 08:40: PM

Expert Answer:

ACIDS

Acids derived from minerals are called inorganic acids or mineral acids.

Examples: Hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, nitric acid

Acids derived from plants are called organic acids.

Examples: Tartaric acid, citric acid

An acid is a compound which when dissolved in water produces hydronium ions (H3O+).

 

            HCl(aq)              +      H2O         →       H3O+            +           Cl(aq)

Hydrochloric acid                Water             Hydronium ion       Chloride ion

 
 
 

BASES

Bases are chemical substances with a bitter taste and are soapy to touch.

They are oxides or hydroxides of metals which react with acids to give salt and water.

 

Alkalis

  • Alkalis are bases which are soluble in water.
  • All alkalis are bases, but all bases are not alkalis. This is because certain bases are insoluble in water.

An alkali is a compound which when dissolved in water yields hydroxyl ions (OH) as the only negatively charged ions.

 

SALTS

  • A neutralisation reaction involves a reaction of a base with an acid to give salt and water only.

 

     NaOH  +   HCl        →    NaCl    +    H2O

     Base             Acid                 Salt           Water

 

Therefore, a salt is defined as a compound formed from an acid by partial or complete replacement of hydrogen ions (H+) of an acid by a metallic ion (basic radical) or an ammonium ion.

Answered by Varsha | 17th Oct, 2018, 12:35: PM