(a) What does SONAR stand for? Explain its working stating one practical application.

(b) A ship sends out ultrasound that returns from the seabed and is detected after 4s. If the speed of ultrasound through sea water is 1550 m/s, find the distance of the seabed from the ship.

Asked by Topperlearning User | 20th May, 2015, 02:05: PM

Expert Answer:

(a) SONAR Stands for Sound Navigation and Ranging.

Sonar consists of a transmitter and a detector and is installed in a boat or a ship, as shown in figure.


The transmitter produces and transmits ultrasonic waves. These waves travel through water and after striking the object on the seabed, get reflected back and are sensed by the detector. The detector converts the ultrasonic waves into electrical signals which are appropriately interpreted. The distance of the object that reflected the sound wave, can be calculated by knowing the speed of sound in water and the time interval between transmission and reception of the ultrasound. Let the time interval between transmission and reception of ultrasound signal be tand the speed of sound through seawater be v. The total distance, 2d travelled by the ultrasound is then, 2d = v x t. The above method is called echo-ranging.

(b) Time between transmission and detection, t = 4s

Speed of ultrasound in sea water, v = 1550 m/s

Distance travelled by the ultrasound = 2 x depth of the sea

                                                          = 2d (where, d is depth of sea)


Answered by  | 20th May, 2015, 04:05: PM