Isaac Newton is considered among the most influential mathematician, physicist, astronomer, alchemist, philosopher and theologian.
He was born in Jan 4, 1643. He died on March 20, 1727.
In 1687, he published Philosophae Naturalis Principia Mathematica.This book is widely regarded as one of the important books in the history of science. It contains the description of the universal gravitation and the three laws of motion. These are the concepts that remained at the forefront of science for centuries after.
Newton's three laws of motion relate the forces acting on a body with its motion. The first is the law of inertia. According to it, 'every object in motion will stay in motion until acted upon by an outside force.'
The second is commonly stated as 'force equals mass times acceleration' or F = ma.
The third and final law is commonly known as 'to every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.'
Newton's law of universal gravitation describes the gravitational attraction between bodies with mass. For an example, the attraction between the earth and moon.
Newton is known to have said that his work on formulating a theory of gravitation was inspired by watching an apple fall from a tree. A story well publicized to this very day.
Other significant work by Newton includes the principles of conservation related to momentum and angular momentum, the refraction of light, an empirical law of cooling, the building of the first practical telescope and much more.
Newton moved to London in 1696 and took up a role as the Warden of the Royal Mint. His role was to oversee the production of the Pound Sterling.
Famous Isaac Newton quotes include: "Plato is my friend - Aristotle is my friend - but my greatest friend is truth."
"I do not know what I may appear to the world, but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the sea-shore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me."
"If I have seen further it is only by standing on the shoulders of Giants."
"Truth is ever to be found in simplicity, and not in the multiplicity and confusion of things."
"I can calculate the motions of the heavenly bodies, but not the madness of people."
Source: sciencekid and wikipedia