Higgs Boson

Image
02

Higgs Boson

Higgs boson or Higgs particle is a proposed elementary particle.

01
Higgs Boson
02

Higgs Boson

Higgs boson or Higgs particle is a proposed elementary particle. The existence of the Higgs boson and the associated Higgs field explain why the other elementary particles in the standard model have mass.

01
Higgs Boson
02

Higgs Boson

The Higgs field has a non-zero field everywhere, even in its lowest energy state. Other elementary particles obtain an effective mass through the continuous interaction with this field. The Higgs field interaction is the simplest mechanism. The Higgs bosonâ€"the smallest possible excitation of the Higgs fieldâ€"has been the target of a long search in particle physics. One of the primary design goals of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva, Switzerlandâ€"one of the most complicated scientific instruments ever builtâ€" was to test the existence of the Higgs boson and measure its properties.

01
Higgs Boson
02

Higgs Boson

The Higgs boson is named after Peter Higgs, who along with others, proposed the theoretical model that predicted such a particle in 1964.

01
Higgs Boson
02

Higgs Boson

The Higgs boson is often referred to as the "God particle" by individuals outside the scientific community, after the title of Leon Lederman's popular science book on particle physics, The God Particle: If the Universe Is the Answer, What Is the Question? While use of this term may have contributed to increased media interest, many scientists dislike it, since it is sensational and overstates the particle's importance. Its discovery would still leave unanswered questions about the unification of quantum chromodynamics, the electroweak interaction, and gravity, as well as the ultimate origin of the universe. Higgs, an atheist himself, is displeased that the Higgs particle is nicknamed the "God particle", because the term "might offend people who are religious". Ironically, many religious believers instead take the particle's potential existence as "proof" that God exists.

01
Higgs Boson
02

Higgs Boson

According to the Standard Model, the Higgs boson is a boson, a type of particle that allows multiple particles to exist in the same state. Furthermore, the model posits that the particle has no intrinsic spin, no electric charge, and no colour charge. It is also very unstable, decaying almost immediately after its creation.

01
Higgs Boson
02

Higgs Boson

Because the Higgs boson is a very massive particle and decays almost immediately when created, only a very high energy particle accelerator can observe and record it. Experiments to confirm and determine the nature of the Higgs boson using the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN began in early 2010, and were performed at Fermilab's Tevatron until its close in late 2011.

01
Higgs Boson
02

Higgs Boson

Alternative sources of the Higgs mechanism that do not need the Higgs boson also are possible and would be considered if the existence of the Higgs boson were to be ruled out. They are known as Higgsless models.

01
Higgs Boson
02

Higgs Boson

In the years since the Higgs field and boson were proposed, several alternative models have been proposed by which the Higgs mechanism might be realized. The Higgs boson exists in some, but not all, theories. For example, it exists in the Standard Model and extensions such as the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model yet is not expected to exist in alternative models such as Technicolor.

01
Higgs Boson
02

Higgs Boson

The particles, with the interactions among the known particles shown as lines. The non-zero Higgs field (green swath) makes the known particles massive, and the Higgs field and Higgs particle have stronger interactions with the heavier particles.

01
Higgs Boson
02

Like other massive particles, Higgs bosons created in particle accelerators decay long before they reach any of the detectors. However, the Standard Model precisely predicts the possible modes of decay and their probabilities. This allows the creation of a Higgs boson to be shown by careful examination of the decay products of collisions.

01
02

Higgs Boson

On 4 July 2012, the two main experiments at the LHC (ATLAS and CMS) both reported independently the confirmed existence of a previously unknown particle with a mass of about 125 GeV/c2 (about 133 proton masses, on the order of 10âˆ'25 kg), which is "consistent with the Higgs boson" and widely believed to be the Higgs boson. They cautioned that further work would be needed to confirm that it is indeed the Higgs boson (meaning that it has the theoretically predicted properties of the Higgs boson and is not some other previously unknown particle) and, if so, to determine which version of the Standard Model it best supports.

01
Higgs Boson
02

Higgs Boson

British physicist Peter Higgs, right, congratulates Fabiola Gianotti, ATLAS experiment spokesperson, after her results presentation during a scientific seminar to deliver the latest update in the search for the Higgs boson at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Meyrin near Geneva, Switzerland.

01
Higgs Boson
02

Higgs Boson

A wall painting at Cern shows how a Higgs boson might look.

01
Higgs Boson
Share facebook twitter gplus

Related Slideshows