How do we learn things?

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Learning Definition

Acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information.

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Learning Definition
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Classical Conditioning

Discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus.

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Classical Conditioning
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Pavlo's experiment

In Pavlov's classic experiment with dogs, the neutral signal was the sound of a bell and the naturally occurring reflex was salivating in response to food.By repeating the neutral stimulus with the environmental stimulus (the presentation of food), the sound of the tone alone could produce the salivation response.

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Pavlo's experiment
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Classical Conditioning

Classical conditioning has been used in everything from the treatment of phobias to long-term anxiety problems. A classic experiment was to discourage wolves from attacking sheep. Ranchers fed the wolves small pieces of meat tainted with mild poison that, when ingested, causes the wolves to experience extreme dizziness and nausea. Later, when the wolves are placed in the pen with the sheep, the mere smell of the sheep causes the wolves to run frantically away from their former prey.

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Classical Conditioning
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Operant Conditioning or Instrumental learning:

B.F. Skinner (1904â€"1990) formulated Operant conditioning which was to form an association between a behavior and a consequence â€" Reward or Punishment of a behavior. Consequences have to be immediate, or clearly linked to the behavior.Reinforcement is a consequence that causes a behavior to occur with greater frequency.

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Operant Conditioning or Instrumental learning:
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Punishment

Punishment is a consequence that causes a behavior to occur with less frequency.

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Punishment
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Experiment

This is a chamber in which Skinner placed animals such as rats and pigeons to study. The chamber contains either a lever or key that can be pressed in order to receive reinforcements such as food and water. To get a rat to learn how to press a lever, the experimenter will use small rewards after each behavior that brings the rat toward pressing the lever. When it takes a step toward the lever, the experimenter will reward the behavior by presenting food or water in the dish. Then, when the rat makes any additional behavior toward the lever, like standing in front of the lever, it is given a reward. The rat will no longer get a reward for just taking a single step in the direction of the lever. This continues until the rat reliably goes to the lever and presses it to receive reward.

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Experiment
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Punishment

After hitting a classmate, the child is made to sit separately and no one is allowed to talk to him. Such that the child never ever hits any classmate again.

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Punishment
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Reward

A child learns that if it smiles and is being picked up by the parents then he keeps smiling, or will smile when he needs to be picked up.

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Reward
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Imitation

Modelling oneself on someone (a "role-model") is a more generalized and sophisticated variation on imitation. For young people, role-models might be parents, or prominent peers, or media figures.

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Imitation
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Imitation

Children increase their giving and helping behaviors after observing a peer or adult doing the same and even after viewing such behavior on a television program.

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Imitation
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Imitation

Some learn fear of insects by watching and imitating their parents behavior and over time fear insects themselves.

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Imitation
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Play

Play generally describes behavior which improves performance in similar situations in the future. Cats are known to play with a ball of string when young, which gives them experience with catching prey. Besides inanimate objects, animals may play with other members of their own species or other animals. Play is generally seen in younger animals, suggesting a link with learning.

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