Comparison of Adjectives Part-2

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Comparison of Adjectives Part-2

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Comparison of Adjectives Part-2
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Formation of Comparative and Superlative:

Most Adjectives of one syllable, and some of more than one, form the Comparative by adding 'er' and the Superlative by adding 'est' to the positive.

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Formation of Comparative and Superlative:
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Formation of Comparative and Superlative:

When the Positive ends in 'e', only 'r' and 'st' are added.

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Formation of Comparative and Superlative:
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Formation of Comparative and Superlative:

When the Positive ends in 'y', preceded by a consonant, the 'y' is changed into 'i' before adding 'er' and 'est'.

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Formation of Comparative and Superlative:
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Formation of Comparative and Superlative:

When the Positive is a word of one syllable and ends in a single consonant, preceded by a short vowel, this consonant is doubled before adding 'er' and 'est'.

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Formation of Comparative and Superlative:
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Formation of Comparative and Superlative:

Adjectives of more than two syllables form the Comparative and Superlative by putting more and most before the Positive. Two-syllable adjectives ending infill (e.g. useful), less (e.g. hope less), ing (e.g. boring)and ed (e.g. surprised) and many others (e.g. modern, recent, foolish, famous, certain) take more and most.

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Formation of Comparative and Superlative:
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Formation of Comparative and Superlative:

The following take either 'er' and 'est' or more and most.

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Formation of Comparative and Superlative:
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Formation of Comparative and Superlative:

If we wish to say that the courage of Ram is greater than the courage of Shyam, we say, Ram is braver than Shyam. But if we wish to say that the courage of Ram is greater than his prudence, we must say,Ram is more brave than prudent.

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Formation of Comparative and Superlative:
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Formation of Comparative and Superlative:

If we say, 'Iron is more useful than any other metal', it means than iron has more uses than other metal. However, if we say, 'Iron is more useful than any metal', that is the same thing as saying 'Iron is more useful than iron' since iron is itself a metal.

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Formation of Comparative and Superlative:
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Irregular Comparison:

The Adjectives in the below slide are compared irregularly, that is, their Comparative and Superlative are not formed from the Positive.

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Irregular Comparison:
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Irregular Comparison:

The double forms of the Comparative and Superlative of the Adjectives given in the previous slide are used in different ways.

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Irregular Comparison:
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Irregular Comparison:

Elder, older; eldest, oldest.- Elder and eldest are used only of persons, not of animals or things; and are now confined to members of the same family. Elder is not used with than following. Older and oldest are used of both persons and things.

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Irregular Comparison:
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Irregular Comparison:

Farther, further - Both farther and further are used to express distance. Further, not farther, is used to mean “additional”.

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Irregular Comparison:
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Irregular Comparison:

Nearest, next.- Nearest means the shortest distance away. Next refers to one of a sequence of things coming one after the other.

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Irregular Comparison:
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Irregular Comparison:

Certain English Comparatives have lost their comparative meaning and are used as Positive. They cannot be followed by than. These are:- Former, latter, elder, upper, inner, outer, utter.

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Irregular Comparison:
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Irregular Comparison:

Certain Comparatives borrowed from Latin have no Positive or Superlative degree. They all end in 'or', not 'er'. They are twelve in all. Five of them have lost their Comparative meaning, and are used as Positive Adjectives. These are:- Interior, exterior, ulterior, major, minor.

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Irregular Comparison:
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Irregular Comparison:

The comparative degree is generally followed by than; but Comparative Adjectives ending in 'or' are followed by the preposition to; as, Inferior, superior, prior, anterior, posterior, senior, junior.

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Irregular Comparison:
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Irregular Comparison:

Adjectives expressing qualities that do not admit of different degrees cannot, strictly speaking, be compared; as given below. For e.g. a thing cannot be more square, more round, more perfect.

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Irregular Comparison:
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Interchange of the Degrees of Comparison

As shown in the below slide, it is possible to change the Degree of Comparison of an Adjective in a sentence, without changing the meaning of the sentence.

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Interchange of the Degrees of Comparison
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