what is inductive effect?what is hyperconjugation and resonanace structure?
The C-Cl bond in the butyl chloride, CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-Cl is polarized due to electronegativity difference. The electrons are withdrawn by the chlorine atom. Thus the first carbon atom gets partial positive charge. In turn, this carbon atom drags electron density partially from the next carbon, which also gets partial positive charge. Thus the inductive effect is transmitted through the carbon chain.
Hyperconjugation is the stabilising interaction that results from the interaction of the electrons in a ?-bond (usually C-H or C-C) with an adjacent empty or partially filled p-orbital or a ?-orbital to give an extended molecular orbital that increases the stability of the system.