Fri August 12, 2011 By:

what is hybridisation? explain the types of hybridisation( sp sp2 sp3 sp3d sp3d2)? expalin the types of overlaping? what is sigma and pi bonds?

Expert Reply
Tue August 16, 2011
it is the process of intermixing of the orbitals of slightly different energiesso as to redistributetheir energies resulting in the formation of new set of orbitals of equivalent energies and shape.
sp:In this one s and one P orbital mix and form two equivalent sp hybrid orbital.This hybris involves the  overlap between the two carbon atoms forming a ? bond and two additional ? bonds formed by p–p overlap
sp2:In sp2 hybridisation the 2s orbital is mixed with only two of the three available 2p orbitals.the two carbon atoms form a ? bond by overlapping two sp2 orbitals and each carbon atom forms two covalent bonds with hydrogen by s–sp2 overlap all with 120° angles. The ? bond between the carbon atoms perpendicular to the molecular plane is formed by 2p–2p overlap
sp3:In this  the  one s orbital "mixes" with the three p orbitals to form four sp3 hybrids.It involves four sigma bonds.
sp3d:In this one s orbital mixes with three p orbitals  and one d orbital .In this three orbitals point towards the corner of a an equilateral traingle while the other two are perpendicular to the plane of the triangle.
sp3d2:In this three p one s and two d orbitals overlap , and adopt octahedral hybridisation.
sigma bond:A sigma bond is formed by end to end filled atomic orbitals along the internuclear axis.
pi bond:A pi bond is formed by the sideways overlap of two half  filled p-orbitals.
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