Question
Sun December 16, 2012 By: Avani Pandey
 

how do factors like temperature and pressure affect dissolution of solid in liquid and dissolution of gas in liquid ?

Expert Reply
Mon December 17, 2012

When a solid dissolves in a liquid, a change in the physical state of the solid analogous to melting takes place. Heat is required to break the bonds holding the molecules in the solid together. At the same time, heat is given off during the formation of new solute -- solvent bonds. 

If the heat given off in the dissolving process is greater than the heat required to break apart the solid, the net dissolving reaction is exothermic (energy given off). The addition of more heat (increases temperature) inhibits the dissolving reaction since excess heat is already being produced by the reaction. 

If the heat given off in the dissolving reaction is less than the heat required to break apart the solid, the net dissolving reaction is endothermic (energy required). The addition of more heat facilitates the dissolving reaction by providing energy to break bonds in the solid. This is the most common situation where an increase in temperature produces an increase in solubility for solids.

More gas is present in a solution with a lower temperature compared to a solution with a higher temperature.

The reason for this gas solubility relationship with temperature is very similar to the reason that vapor pressure increases with temperature. Increased temperature causes an increase in kinetic energy. The higher kinetic energy causes more motion in molecules which break intermolecular bonds and escape from solution.

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