Can you please explain what is layering, cutting and tissue culture with some examples?
Layering is a means of plant propagation in which a portion of an aerial stem grows roots while still attached to the parent plant and then detaches as an independent plant. Natural layering typically occurs when a branch touches the ground, whereupon it produces adventitious roots. At a later stage the connection with the parent plant is severed and a new plant is produced as a result. Example - Drooping black raspberry, croton etc.
Plant tissue culture is a practice used to propagate plants under sterile conditions, often to produce clones of a plant. Here, new plants are grown by removing tissue or separating cells from the growing tip of a plant. The cells are then placed in an artificial medium where they divide rapidly to form a small group of cells or callus. The callus is transferred to another medium containing hormones for growth and differentiation. The plantlets are then placed in the soil so that they can grow into mature plants. Using tissue culture, many plants can be grown from one parent in disease-free conditions. This technique is commonly used for ornamental plants.
Many types of plants, both woody and herbaceous, are frequently propagated by cuttings. A cutting is a vegetative plant part which is severed from the parent plant in order to regenerate itself, thereby forming a whole new plant. Many plant parts can be used; thus cuttings are classified as root, stem, or leaf. Stem cuttings are the most common.
Example rose, geranium, begonia, horse radish, African violet.